Statistics is the study of data collection, analysis, organization, interpretation, and presentation. Raw data could be communicated in many ways, some of which includes: scatterplot, dot plot, histogram, box plot, or bar graph. When presenting data, there are vocabularies that are essentials to understand:

Individual: people, animals, or things that are described as a set of data

Variable: characteristic of an individual

Categorical variable: the groups or category of the individual

Quantitative variable: adding or averaging numerical values

Distribution: pattern of variation → shape, spread, and center


When presenting the data, it is important that the data is the normal distribution. In order to access the normality of the data, the data needs to be symmetrical with a single peak, bell-shaped and must follow the empirical rule. Empirical rule is a way to access the normality of the data using the 68 – 95 – 99.7 rule.

68% of the data fall within one deviation of the mean

95% of the data fall within two deviations of the mean

99.7% of the data fall within three deviations of the mean

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