An inter-generational observation of parental expectations for and definitions of children’s “success” in rural and urban Cambodia

As part of the changing society, we strive to work harder in order to meet with its demand. That is why, often time, parents tend to have many pressuring sets of expectations and standards on their children future. Parent’s expectation is one of the most overwhelming factors that could influence the children decision of their future. This research project will investigates the generalitional changes of parent’s expectation of their children success in the urban and rural Cambodia, through surveying method. Through its investigations, this research will allow the deeper understanding of the Cambodian parent’s perceptions of their children succeed as time changes. A deeper understanding of each other’s expectation would enable a more constructive communication between parents and children. In a fast-growing country like Cambodia, this research has never been done before which make the information even more vital to the citizen of this country.


Statistics is the study of data collection, analysis, organization, interpretation, and presentation. Raw data could be communicated in many ways, some of which includes: scatterplot, dot plot, histogram, box plot, or bar graph. When presenting data, there are vocabularies that are essentials to understand:

Individual: people, animals, or things that are described as a set of data

Variable: characteristic of an individual

Categorical variable: the groups or category of the individual

Quantitative variable: adding or averaging numerical values

Distribution: pattern of variation → shape, spread, and center


When presenting the data, it is important that the data is the normal distribution. In order to access the normality of the data, the data needs to be symmetrical with a single peak, bell-shaped and must follow the empirical rule. Empirical rule is a way to access the normality of the data using the 68 – 95 – 99.7 rule.

68% of the data fall within one deviation of the mean

95% of the data fall within two deviations of the mean

99.7% of the data fall within three deviations of the mean

Smore Lab

As a class, we did a lab called “The Smore Lab.” In the lab, we were given cracker, marshmallow, and chocolate piece to create our own smore. The lab focused on strengthening our understanding regarding chemical and physical reaction, limiting and excess reactants, and theoretical, and percent yield.​​​


As a start for our chemistry class this academic year, we focused strongly on doing the experiment as well as designing the experiment. My class had decided to do an experiment on the pH changes as a practice. We’ve chosen an already existed experiment to design the questions, and procedure on.

Question: By adding different amount of the solution into the cabbage’s juice affect the pH?


  1. Chop the cabbage into small pieces.
  2. Add boiling water into the pieces of cabbage, then wait for 20 minutes.
  3. Filter out the cabbage solution into beakers.
  4. Make a 1:1 solution of water: cabbage.
  5. Divide the 1:1 solution into 10 beakers, each beaker contains 200ml of the solution.
  6. Add 10ml of baking soda, lemon juice, bleach, coke, detergent into a separate beaker that contains 200ml of the solution.
  7. Observe the reacting color.
  8. Add 20ml of baking soda, lemon juice, bleach, coke, detergent into a separate beaker that contains 200ml of the solution.
  9. Observe the reacting color.
  10. Compare the new color from the 20ml beakers to the color from the 10ml beakers.  


  Color 10ml Color 20ml Observation
Baking Soda Dark Blue Dark Blue Color changes starting from the bottom. Eventually evenly diffuse OR a student decide to shake it.
Lime Dark Pink Dark Pink
Bleach Dark Green (seaweed green) Orange
Coca-Cola Light Purple Light Purple
Powder Detergent Solution with water Mixed of dark green and dark blue Mixed of dark green and dark blue


Do Differently:

  1. Prepare the cabbage-water solution before class
  2. Make procedures & questions the day before
  3. Have a better way of recording the reaction: could be the color range that can be put into quantitative data (has to be done before class)
  4. Try with a different ratio of water: cabbage solution.

Retain the Voice — (2017 – 2018)

For the first ten years of my life, I lived in a confined community and was less exposed to the world-views. I know many women who gave up their education for marriage or so that their brothers could continue. But I thought, why must women have to make the sacrifice for men? I heard of many jokes about my male friend who seems “FEMINIST” — they sound insulting in my ears, but I never understand why people said them. I felt that it was wrong, but I never have the courage to speak up. Because of that, I thought that I might just be different. I was taught to not question the elders, I was held back because I felt that I was too young to have a voice. I grew up understanding that I should not voice my opinion.


Earlier this school year, I have stepped out of my comfort zone to permit myself a voice by giving a Ted Talk on Cultural Acceptance and Sharing. “Home is where the heart is” was the principle quote of my speech. I was inspired by the many refugees including Cambodian, who have left their home to other countries seeking help. Not only that those people are physically vulnerable, but they also are mentally and emotionally sensitive. Throughout the entire Ted Talk, I emphasize the bond of cultures that gives people purposes and hopes, and that is a bond that holds the communities together. I have investigated the Rohingya refugees, who are being forced to deny their culture, breaking their bonds, and is facing an enormous crisis. I finally spoke up for what I felt was right.


I have to admit, speaking in the Ted Talk and continue to be aware of the world’s issues just isn’t enough. I know that every moment that I breathe, and continue to live this comfortable life there are women who suffered silently from domestic violence and being the victim of rape and sexual harassment. Sometimes, it is just a problem where girls are told to learn to do house chores while guys do not have to do them. The kind of inequality rooted in many young people’s mind. I used to be in that same situation. Do I have to do this if I were a boy? I wish I were a boy. This thought continues to circulate in me. However, being a part of the Gender Equity Exploration has completely shifted my thought. In class, we’ve discussed a variety of gender stereotypes: why are women being seen as weak compared to men, and since when is women were ASSIGNED to the house chores and being a caretaker. I’ve learned that there are people who would listen to my story, and I have the capability to share mine. The conversations were emotional and uncomfortable, but that was what really gave me ideas to speak out and wanting other people to do the same. Not only that we’ve discussed these critical problems, but we also started a comfortable environment that allows people to discuss the same issues and share their stories through an event called Gender Summit. The Gender Summit itself was not a tangible solution, but the end of the day people have comes to many realizations in the gender perspective. Sometimes change comes with a conversation, dialogue, and questions.


Having my voice heard is what I ever wish for. Sharing my story, and allowing myself to hear others, but most importantly inspiring others to do the same was the greatest accomplishment in this school year. I might not start with the strongest voice, but I have made the first move. Therefore, I am encouraging YOU to do the same. “It’s not about finding your voice, it’s about giving yourself permission to use your voice” – Kris Carr.

YouthSpeak Forum


I am honored to take part in an event called “Youth Speak Forum” started by YOUTH for YOUTH. The workshop focuses on two of the seventeen UN Sustainable Development Goal: decent work & economic growth, and industry, innovation, and infrastructure. Throughout the entire day, we listened to different keynote speakers addressing the topic from transforming ideas into plan and action, being prepared for future job opportunities and changes in a developing world, to promoting job opportunities for women in order to reach the sustainable development goals.

At the end of the day, we also worked with other students to come up with a six-week-long project that will tackle either one of the sustainable goals above, under the theme of, innovation through education, social impact, and business. Overall, all of us find the event really interesting and great networking opportunity and very informative.

Greek Mythology Project

Hera the Goddess of Marriage and Birth

         Hera or Juno (Roman) is the Goddess of Marriage and Birth, the Queen of Heaven and Olympians. Hera was married to Zeus, the King of God and her brother. Before her marriage, she had dominance over the earth, heaven, and all aspect of existence including seasons and weather. Just like other gods, Hera had super strength including, immortality, resistance to injury, and her unique ability to curse or bless the marriage. As the goddess of marriage and birth, she symbolized women’s responsibility as wives, who need to take care of others.

      In most myths, Hera is depicted wearing the diadem,  jeweled in the shape of a half-crown, and holding a pomegranate as a symbol for birth, blood, and death, in her hand. She was known to have the peacock as a symbol, depicting her beauty, luxury, and immortality, and the cow embodies Hera’s watchfulness of human beings, as her sacred animals. Hera has a strong preference for lilies over other flowers. Lilies also symbolized humanity and devotion, and it is the 30th wedding anniversary flowers.

      Hera was the youngest daughter of  Cronus and Rhea. After their marriage, Zeus and Hera went on a 300 years honeymoon where they had three kids together, Ares the God of War, Hebe the cupbearer of the Olympians, and Eileithyia the Goddess of Childbirth. In some myths, Hephaestus was known to be the son of Zeus and Hera. In other myths, it was believed that Hephaestus was created by Hera alone after her anger of Zeus unfaithful action in their marriage. Hera is deeming to prove that she does not need Zeus, by having Hephaestus alone. However, Hephaestus was born with birth defect, which greatly upset Hera as well as Zeus.

      Even though, Hera was the Goddess of Marriage, her marriage, was unsuccessful. Hera was famous for the jealous and vindictive response to her husband’s mistresses and illegitimate children, and her revenge to their mothers and any gods or goddesses who claim to be more superior than she is. Hera had an unstoppable hatred for one of Zeus’ favorite sons, Heracles. To execute him, Hera summoned the storm over the sea to get him out. That incident had inflamed Zeus’ anger towards Hera. Hera was hung in the clouds with the golden chain, and anvils attached to her ankles by Zeus as her punishment. Hephaestus, who tried to help his mother, was thrown from heaven by Zeus, however, in other myths, it was believed that he got thrown away because of his birth defect.

     Hera was also known to be the creator of the Milky Way. The legend stated that Zeus brought his son who was born from a mortal woman, Heracles to suckle Hera’s milk while she was sleeping, in the hope of endowing godlike qualities. Once regaining her consciousness, Hera pushed them away allowing her spurt of milk to drop which resulted in the creation of the Milky Way.  

     There are many temples dedicated to her in various Greek City-states, women often keep the altars of her in their homes. Greek women, who wish to conceive sons, they often offered a vow:  small statues or painting, or apples, any fruit representing birth. According to researchers, one of the earliest Hera’s Temple was made before any of Zeus’ temples.This shows that Hera was worship by the Greek long before Zeus. In addition, entering marriage is considering as their rite of passage, and it is the only way for women to change their social status.

      Despite her vengeful tolerance towards her husband’s mistress and illegitimate children, Hera was faithfully worshipped by the Greece and Roman. The month June was named as an honored for Hera from her goddess named in Roma, Juno. June is the most popular month for weddings.


Works Cited


Campbell, Mike. “Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Juno.” Behind the Name,

“Goddess Names and Their Meanings.” Goddess Names,

“Hera.” Hera ***,

“Hera.” Hera ***,

“Hera.” Story of Hera ***,

“Hera.” Hera, Goddess of Marriage and Childbirth, Queen of the Gods – Greek Gods,

“Hera • Facts and Information on Greek Goddess Hera.” Greek Gods & Goddesses,

“Hera, Greek Goddess.” Hera, Greek Goddess of Love and Marriage,

“Hera, Queen of the Gods.” Myth of Hera, Queen of the Gods ***,

“Hera, Queen of the Gods.” Myth of Hera, Queen of the Gods ***,

Nguyen, Judy. “Greek Gods Strengths and Weaknesses.”, 18 Sept. 2015,

Gender Equity

During the course of seven weeks, we have looked at the various aspect of gender-related issues as well as developing a Gender Website, where we share different stories, and hosted a Gender Summit, to raise awareness. During the Summit, participants discussed gender-related topics: gender in power, culture, economic, and language. Our mission statement was to raise awareness about global gender issues with a focus on Cambodia society.We aim to create a healthy and constructive dialogue about gender equity, through communication, passion, and risk-taking by examining the past to transform the future.

Gender Summit

The summit happens for two days, January 27th and 28th that were in both English and Khmer. We have invited high school age students from all across Cambodia. It was my privilege to serve as a lead organizer for the Gender Summit. It was a marvelous experience to see so many young Cambodians come together to discuss this very sensitive and un-commoned topics. With the help of the younger generations and change agent, I am hoping that talking about issues related to gender won’t be as intimidating and limiting.

Gender Summit Documentary:

One Billion Rising

One Billion Rising is an event that gathers people to combat all form of violence towards women and girl. During the event, we listened to different speakers, speaking about the issues related to gender-based violence towards women as well as dancing to a song called, Break the Chain. 

A recap of One Billion Rising 2018 on Sunday, February 11th at Chenla theatre! Once again, we would like to express our gratitude and respect to victims who have come forth to share their stories and the amazing team of organizations and volunteers who made the event possible.Rise! Resist! Unite! Stop violence and exploitation against women and girls!

Posted by One Billion Rising Cambodia on 26 កុម្ភៈ 2018





The Leftover Women

The Leftover Women

Ladies, do you know that you come with an expiration date?

In our contemporary society, many women are encouraged to pursue their dreams, higher education, and STEM related careers. Slowly, but surely, women have conquered more and more executive positions. However, these opportunities often affect women’s decisions about motherhood and marriage.

In China, women are 48.6% of the nation’s population. A study from 2017 shows that 40.1% of Chinese women are hesitant to have children, while the 63.4% are worried that having children would significantly impact their career development. Many advantaged women and less-advantaged men remain single due to the cultural beliefs that men should be more highly educated than women.

During Chinese New Year, when family members gather to celebrate, many unmarried women in their late twenties are pressured with questions: How old are you? Are you married? Do you have a boyfriend? When will you have a boyfriend? When will you get married? Why are you still single?

The tradition of arranged marriage has been illegal in China since the 1950s, nonetheless, many parents remain strongly involved in the marriages of their children.

With the rapidly increasing rate of unmarried women, and with parents oppression on their children’s marriage life, the birth of boyfriend renting app, and marriage market, expeditiously emerged into the Chinese society.

In 2005, China started a place called “marriage market,” it is where parents post the profiles of their children including job, income, and property ownership, in the hope of finding the right match. “It is like selling your daughter” stated one of the casts in SK-ll: Marriage Market Takeover.

Furthermore, the demand for fake boyfriend and girlfriend renting have peaked during the Lunar New Year in recent years. As such desire could be found in an online shopping, Taobao, in China. The price of the pretend partner could be up to $250 per day, occasionally, including the overnight stay.

Many young people are turning away from marriage, which causes an alarm to the parents. Parents fear that the children will break family lineage or will be left with no one to care for them. Society has set an expiration date on any women who are not married by the age of 25, and will be called “Sheng Nu” translated to “leftover women.”

Many parents misunderstand their daughters and believe women must rely on men in order to have a “complete” life, that women are bound to rely on men and their life would be insufficient without men, even with a stable job. If a woman doesn’t find her partner at the early age she will be left unwanted, and that was her only chance.

The pressure of women needed to find their suitable partner at an early age, that sometimes would lead to arranged/forced marriage isn’t only the pressing issues in China, it is a problem in places such as; India, Africa, Middle East and Asia. That imprecise ideology was taught from generations after another, however, the beauty of culture is that it can also be untaught.

Do we, women actually have an expiration date on us? Marriage should be a choice at any age for any member of the society, it should never be considered as a “must”. Women who have chosen to pursue their career should be highly encouraged. Lastly, leftover women should be treated with respect and honor.




Mamie Phipps Clark

Mamie Phipps Clark was born on April 18, 1917, in Hot Spring, Arkansas. Her father was a physician and her mother was a housewife who had been actively involved with her husband’s medical practice.

At the age of seventeen, Clark graduated from Langston High School. Despite the race barrier for black students, Clark was offered various scholarships to further her education, two of which were, Fisk University in Tennessee and Howard University in Washington D.C. She chooses to attend Howard, where she major in math and minor in physic. That was when she met her husband, Kenneth Bancroft Clark who was a master student in psychology. Kenneth had persuaded Clark to pursue psychology because it is more favorable in term of employment opportunities, and would allow her to work closely with children regarding her passion. Later on, she has become the first female to a doctorate in psychology.

In her psychology master’s thesis, she had investigated the mental growth of the black children, who become aware of them self, belonging to a specific race group “The Development of Consciousness of Self in Negro Preschool Children.” Her research had become historic when it was used to support the Brown vs. Board education court case, it brought light to racial segregation in school. According to her research, children become aware of their blackness at a very early age, 4 or 5. The “race-consciousness” refers to the consciousness of self-identifying oneself based on their physical characteristics as members of the specific race group.  

Clark had started a psychological testing and service center for minority children called “The Northside.” With some financial difficulties, the Clark family had started this institution to provide psychological and educational service to the minority children and parents deal with the impact of racism and discrimination.

Along with her work at Northside, Mamie Clark was actively involving with her other community. She worked with her husband, Kenneth on the Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited project. She worked with the Board of Directors of numerous educational and philanthropic institutions.

Despite, the societal barrel of African-American women she had fought her way through many challenges and had made several great discoveries for psychology filed until today. Mamie Clark served as the Director of the Northside Center from 1946 – 1979 the year of her retirement. She died on August 11, 1983, leaving her great discovery until today.